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 Determining What's Been Changed on RPM Based Systems

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Posts : 248
Join date : 2010-02-23
Age : 54
Location : snow drift in minnesota

PostSubject: Determining What's Been Changed on RPM Based Systems   Mon Mar 15, 2010 5:50 pm

As a "OS" consultant, I find myself working with several distros and other OS's. Some times though you find a tip or trick that is just so cool and useful......

I always find it useful to understand which files that shipped with rpm packages have been modified, since it's usually a good indicator of what customizations have been performed on the system. To determine the modified files, I simply run:

% rpm -qa | xargs rpm --verify --nomtime | less

# Sample output:

missing /usr/local/src
.M...... /bin/ping6
.M...... /usr/bin/chage
.M...... /usr/bin/gpasswd
....L... c /etc/pam.d/system-auth
.M...... /usr/bin/chfn
.M...... /usr/bin/chsh
S.5..... c /etc/rc.d/rc.local
S.5..... c /etc/sysctl.conf
S.5..... c /etc/ssh/sshd_config
S.5..... c /etc/updatedb.conf
The following is taken from the rpm man pages (Verify Options section):

c %config configuration file.
d %doc documentation file.
g %ghost file (i.e. the file contents are not
included in the package payload).
l %license license file.
r %readme readme file.

S file Size differs
M Mode differs (includes permissions and file type)
5 MD5 sum differs
D Device major/minor number mismatch
L readLink(2) path mismatch
U User ownership differs
G Group ownership differs
T mTime differs
Using this trick, I can quickly determine what configuration files have been modified as well as any metadata modifications (ownership, link etc.).

An expert is a man who tells you a simple thing in a confused way in such a fashion as to make you think the confusion is your own fault. 
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